The causes for the onset of labor
There is no certainty about how the occurrence of the onset of labor, giving rise to several theories relating to the start of his strength. Here are several dominant hormones during pregnancy:
The first dominant hormones are estrogen. It serves to increase the sensitivity of the uterine muscles and facilitate reception of external stimuli such as oxytocin stimulation, prostaglandin stimulation, mechanical stimulation.
Progesterone functions to reduce the sensitivity of the uterine muscles, making it difficult to receive external stimuli such as oxytocin, stimulating prostaglandins, mechanical stimulation, and causing the muscles of the uterus and smooth muscle relaxation. In pregnancy both hormones are in a balanced state, so pregnancy can be maintained.
Changes in the balance of these two hormones cause oxytocin secreted by the posterior parstophyse hypophysis causing contractions in the form of Braxton Hicks. This contraction will be the dominant force when labor begins, so the older the pregnancy the more frequent the frequency of contractions. Oxytocin works together or through prostaglandins which are increasing from the age of 15 weeks to pregnancy, especially during labor or delivery. Besides the nutritional factors of pregnant women, stretching of the uterine muscles can provide an important influence for the start of uterine contractions.
Causes that cause labor include:
- Theory of Decreasing Hormones
The decrease levels of estrogen and progesterone begin for one to two weeks before parturition. Progesterone works as a sedative of the smooth muscles of the uterus, the decrease in progesterone will cause spasms of blood vessels. As a result, it arises pushing the conception results out. Hormonal factors, the influence of prostaglandins, uterine structure, uterine circulation, nerve effects, and nutrition are referred to as factors that cause the labor. Prostaglandin levels increase from week 15 to aterm. It will increase during labor.
- Prostaglandin Theory
Prostaglandin produced by decidua, one of the reasons for the onset of labor. The results of the experiments show that prostaglandin F2 or E2 which is given intravenously, internally and externally resulting in the contraction of the myometrium at each gestational age. It is also supported by the presence of high levels of prostaglandins both amniotic water and parifer blood before or during labor.
- The Placenta Theory
Similarly, the first theory and the theory of decreasing hormones affected by the placenta growth which also results in changes in villi korealism so that estrogen and progesterone levels decrease.
- Uterine Distension Theory
The condition of the uterus continues to enlarge and become tense. As a result, it causes anemia of the uterine muscles. This allows disruption of the circulation of utero placenta so that the placenta experiences degeneration.
- Theory of Mechanical Irritation
There is pressure on the cervical ganglion from the francenhous plexus located behind the cervix. If this ganglion is compressed by the head of the fetus uterine, soon the contractions will arise.
- The theory of reduced nutrition in the fetus is first put by Hippocrates. He stated if nutrients are reduced so the results of conception will soon be released.
The immersion of the fetal head into the pelvic cavity reduced space in the uterus and a slight widening of the symphysis. This condition often alleviates respiratory complaints and heartburn and primigravida. They will be seen at 36 weeks of gestation while multigravida will be seen at 36 weeks of gestation. Also, multipara will only appear after labor begins, considering the looser abdominal muscles.
- Braxton-Hicks contractions
The Braxton-Hicks contraction when the uterus is stretched and easily stimulated causes distention of the abdominal wall. Consequently, the abdominal wall becomes thinner and the skin becomes more sensitive to stimulation.
- Partial Induction (Induction Of Labor)
Partum induction is done by stimulating the frankenhouser plexus. It inserts several grams of laminaria in the cervical canal, breaks the membranes, injects oxygen (preferably by infusion), uses prostaglandins and so on. In induction of labor, care must be taken that the cervix is ripe (already short and soft), also that the cervix has opened for one finger. To assess the cervix can also use the orshop or bishop score. If the value of a bishop is more than an induction of labor, it is likely to succeed.
Pregnancy and childbirth is not an easy process. You not only face problems during pregnancy but during childbirth, you can also experience childbirth complications. But, the mother should not be afraid, all these things will be covered with happiness when you see your baby born safely.
Common childbirth complications
Here are we have submitted some complications of childbirth that can occur. They are:
- Breeched baby
When the gestational age is nearing the time of birth, mothers usually need to see your doctor to see the baby’s position. A good baby’s position for birth is the baby’s head down and the baby facing down. If the position of the baby is breeched, then you will be advised to do various ways to return the baby to its proper position naturally. However, if this does not work and the position of the baby is still breeched at birth, this will make the birth process more complicated. Childbirth by cesarean section may be recommended at this time.
- The process of giving birth is too long
Childbirth is a natural process where every mother can do it. A smooth birth process may take only a few hours. However, some mothers may experience problems in the cervix (as a way out for the baby). The mother’s cervix can have difficulty developing and enlarging, so the baby is difficult to get out and the birth process lasts longer. The longer birth process is certainly not good if left unchecked. The risk of the mother having an infection (if the amniotic fluid has ruptured) is getting bigger. For this reason, doctors will usually give medication to help speed up the delivery process or sometimes a cesarean section needs to be done.
- Umbilical cord prolapse
The navel is the foundation of the baby’s life. The umbilical cord flows nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the baby’s body so that the baby can grow and develop in the mother’s uterus. Sometimes, during the delivery process, the umbilical cord can enter the cervix before the baby after the membranes rupture. In other hands, the navel can even come out first in the vagina than the baby. So, this condition is very dangerous for the baby. Still running blood flow from the umbilical cord to the baby can be disrupted. This is an emergency for babies.
- The umbilical cord wrapped around the baby
Since the baby is always moving in the womb, the baby may be wrapped around the umbilical cord. It can release itself many times during pregnancy. However, the umbilical cord surrounding the baby during childbirth may endanger the baby since there is a decrease in blood flow to the baby because of the depressed umbilical cord. This can cause the baby’s heart rate to decrease.
- Heavy bleeding
After the baby was born, bleeding can affect the mother. Mild bleeding normally occurs, but heavy bleeding can be serious. Excessive bleeding can be caused by uterine contractions after childbirth goes bad, parts of the placenta are still left in the uterus, and infections of the uterine wall.