Physiological adaptation of pregnancy – Integumentary System
The integumentary system is an organ system that distinguishes, separates, protects, and informs animals about the surrounding environment. This system is often the largest part of the organ system that includes skin, hair, fur, scales, nails, sweat glands and products (sweat or mucus).
All human body is covered by a system called the integumentary system. The integumentary system is the outermost organ system. This system consists of the skin and its accessories, including nails, hair, glands (sweat and sebaceous), and special nerve receptors (for stimuli of internal or external changes). Based on its function, the organs in the integumentary system function to close organs or tissues in humans from outside contacts. The integumentary system can repair itself (self-repairing). This is also the body’s first defense mechanism (minimalizing the external environment of the body with the body).
The skin is the most extensive organ that contributes to 7% of total body weight. The presence of skin plays an important role in preventing excessive fluid loss and preventing the entry of agents in the environment such as bacteria, chemicals, and ultraviolet radiation. The skin will hold if there are mechanical forces such as friction (vibration), vibration and detect physical changes in the outside environment. Further, the skin builds a barrier separating internal organs from the outside environment and participates in various vital body functions.
Integumentary System Function
Here we have submitted some system integumentary functions, including:
- As protection from drought, invasion of microorganisms, ultraviolet, and mechanical, chemical, or temperatures
- As a recipient of sensations in the form of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
- As a temperature regulator reducing heat loss during cold temperatures and increasing heat loss during hot temperatures
- As a metabolic function, which is storing energy through fat reserves; synthesis of vitamin D
- As a function of excretion that is removing body fluids (sweat and mucus)
Integumentary System in Humans
- Skin epidermis
Formed from several stratified squamous epithelia. There is little blood supply and also nerve receptors, only with the layer closest to the epidermis. It formed the outer layer along 0.1-5 mm. The external layer is composed of keratinocytes or horny substances. This external layer is usually replaced about once every 3-4 weeks. Epidermin is divided into 5 parts, they are corneum, lusidum, granulosum, spinosum, and germinativum.
Located in under the epidermis layer, thicker. This layer is also elastic and durable. This contains complex tissue at several nerve endings, sudorifera glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and blood vessel follicles. This is the provider of nutrients for every layer in the epidermis. The dermis is composed of two layers, namely:
- Stratum Pappilare is a layer that contains a lot of capillaries and macrophages, lymphocytes, mast cells, and leukocytes.
- Stratum Retikulare is a part of the dermis. This part is thicker than the stratum papillary. There is fat in large or small groups.
This layer is in the form of adipose tissue. This layer provides cushioning, between the layers of the skin with internal structures such as muscles and bones. There are blood vessels, nerves & lymph with connective tissue that contains fat cells inside. This fat tissue works as heat insulation and provides a buffer for the skin layer above it.
Here are several glands in the skin including:
- Sweat glands. Found in large parts of the skin on the surface of the body, especially in the palms and feet. Except for the glans penis, the edges of the lips, the outer ear and the nail bed.
- Ekrin’s gland. This gland is in all areas of human skin. The channel also empties directly into the surface of the skin. This gland also releases sweat as a reaction, for an increase in ambient temperature and body temperature. The speed of sweat secretion will be controlled by the sympathetic nerve. Expenditures of sweat usually occur in the hands, feet, axillae, forehead, as the body’s reaction to stress, pain, and so forth.
- Apocrine Gland. This gland is in the axillary, anus, scrotum, labia major, and empties into the hair follicles. This one gland is also active during puberty, in women, the number will increase and also decrease during menstruation. The apocrine gland usually produces cloudy sweat like milk, which is broken down again by bacteria. These bacteria produce a characteristic odor in the axilla. In the outer ear, there are apocrine glands, especially the serum glands that produce cerumen.
- Oil glands. The oil gland secretes oily substances, called sebum. That is in every hair follicle, except for the mammary papillae, labia minora, and mouth corners. Its function is controlling the amount of oil secretion flow into space between the follicles of the hair follicles and the hair shaft. This will later lubricate the hair so that the hair becomes smooth, supple and soft.
- Serum. Is a special type of apocrine gland, which is only present in auditory methus. For example the place of the gland that produces cerumen.
Nails are parts of the body that grow at the fingertips. Nails grow from cells that are similar to gels that are soft and dead, harden, then form again when they begin to grow back from the fingertips. The skin of water contained at the base of the nail function is to protect dirt. The main function of the nail is to protect the fingertips, which are soft and full of nerves.
Hair is an organ that resembles threads that grow on the skin of animals, especially mammals. Hair arises from the epidermis or outer skin, although it is originally far from the hair follicles that are far below the dermis. Hair is all over the body except for the palms and feet. As well as in the dorsal part of the phalanx distal fingers or toes, penis, labia minora and also lips. This hair consists of roots with cells without keratin. The stem consists of keratin cells.
Diseases or disorders of disorders that exist in the Integumentary System in Humans
- Skin cancer
- Rubella or Measles
- Hives / Urticaria or allergic itching
- Seborrheic Eczema or Seborrheic Eczema