Overview of Gestational age
People plan to have children at numerous stages of their lives, and this implies different ages. So, is there one thing like ‘the good age to own a baby? There are benefits and downsides to having kids of all ages. Also, factors just like the financial conditions, the society you reside in, and the career prospects of each also play a role in selecting the proper time to begin having a child. Gaining in-depth info concerning these factors can assist you to decide that the simplest age for you to urge pregnant is.
What is the simplest Age for Pregnancy? The answer can vary betting on the individual. The definition of “best” also will dissent every individual circumstance. But, overall, a majority of surveys and studies indicate that the perfect age to urge pregnant is between twenty and thirty-five.
Understanding the estimation of maternity dates is vital for the mother. WHO desires to understand the expectation of the birth, and for her health care suppliers. They might opt for the days at that to perform numerous screening tests and assessments, like blood serum screening, assessment of the maturity, and induction of labor for postdate pregnancies.
These three basic ways wont to facilitate estimate fetal age (GA) ar discharge history, clinical examination, and sonography. The primary a pair of ar subject to goodly error and may solely be used once sonography facilities don’t seem to be accessible.
The antepartum period includes the time of whole pregnancy starting from the first day of the late menstrual period until the time of labor. This period is characterized by intranasal period. The antepartum period is divided into trimesters, each trimester consists of at least 13 weeks or 3 months. This classification is derived from consideration of the length of pregnancy from the normal period (at least 280 days, 40 weeks, 9 months from the first day of the last menstruation).
Fertilization occurs by the time of ovulation, this makes the pregnancy approach the period of 266 days or 38 weeks. This takes the additional time for 14 days to 280 days from the end of the menstrual period. Commonly, the 1st trimester is generally calculated from 1 to 12 weeks, second trimester week 13 to 27 (15 weeks).
So, pregnancy can be divided into three main periods for the same interval (approximately 13 weeks or 3 months), which is known as the first, second, and third trimesters. This classification should not be used to indicate the age of pregnancy but only to show the condition or complication that generally occurs in a certain period. For example, spontaneous abortion generally occurs in the first trimester, pre-eclampsia in the third trimester and so on.
Here are we have submitted some ways for determining gestational age. This can be done in various ways including:
- The formula for Naegele
The Naegele formula is mainly for determining the estimated day of birth. This formula applied to women with a 28-day cycle so that ovulation occurs on the 14th day in each month. How to calculate it is the first day of last menstruation plus 7 and months minus 3.
- Based on the height of the uterine fundus
Traditionally the estimated fundal height is done by palpating the fundus and comparing with several benchmarks, such as symphysis pubis, umbilicus, or xiphoid process. This method is carried out without considering the body size of the mother. As good as the examination or estimate, the results are still rough and the report may result vary.
To standardize the estimated height of the uterine fundus, researchers recommend using a measuring tape to measure the fundal height.
This is done from the edge of the pubic symphysis since it provides more accurate and reliable results. It is known that measurements using a measuring tape providing consistent results between individuals.
Although, there is still little variation unless all midwives trained in the same way. It has also been proven that this technique is very useful in developing countries. This is used as an initial screening tool and can be carried out by doctors and midwives with equal efficiency.
It is important to note that the measuring tape used should be made of not loosen material. It is the best to empty the bladder first before examining it. Measurements are made by placing the tip of the measuring tape at the edge of the pubic symphysis. While maintaining the measuring tape attached to the abdominal wall, measured the distance to the top of the uterine fundus. This size is usually according to the gestational age in the week after 24 weeks’ gestation and can be several variations (approximately 1 to 2 cm). If the deviation is smaller it means there is a disruption of fetal growth.
- Based on abdominal palpation
- Bartholomew’s formula
Between the symphysis pubis and the center part divided into 4 equal parts, each part shows an addition of 1 month. At the time the fundus uterine feels right at the symphysis the gestational age is 2 months (8 weeks). Between the center and the xifoideus process are also divided into 4 parts and each part shows a 1-month increase. It should be noted that the 10th month (40 weeks) of the uterine fundus is approximately the same as the 8th month (32 weeks) when the head has entered the pelvis.
- Formula Mc. Donald
Uterus fundus is measured by the special ribbon. Here is the way to measure it. The fundal height is multiplied by 2 and divided by 7 for making the gestational age in the obstetric month. Further, multiplied it by 8 and divided by 7 making the gestational age in weeks.
Fetal weight estimate
This estimate of fetal weight if applicable to the fetus with a head presentation. The formula is as follows:
(FUNDAL HEIGHT IN CM – N) X 155 = WEIGHT (GRAM).
By the conditions:
If the head has entered the pelvis n = 11
if the head has not entered the pelvis then n = 12.
- Quickening (perception of the first fetal movement)
The first fetal movement is usually felt at 18 weeks’ gestation (primigravida) or 16 weeks (multigravida).
- Ultrasonography (USG)
Determining gestational age by ultrasound can be done by using 3 ways:
- By measuring the pregnancy sac (GS = Gestational Sac) for gestational ages 6-12 weeks.
- By measuring head-butt distance (GRI = Groun Rump Length) for 7 to 14 weeks’ gestation
- By measuring the biparietal diameter (BPD) for pregnancies more than 12 weeks.