Four stages of labor
If the pregnancy is considered normal and healthy, it is likely that the mother will give birth normally or spontaneously. It’s good to recognize the stages of labor:
- Stage I
This stage indicates the normal labor process has begun. In partu (start parturition) is characterized by the discharge of mucus mixed with blood because the cervix begins to ripen and the opening process of the cervix (cervix) to widen to 10 cm to exit the fetus. Blood originates from the rupture of capillary arteries around the cervical canal. In general, this stage lasts between 8-12 hours.
This stage consists of 2 phases, they are:
- Latent phase. In this phase, the opening process starts from 0 to 3 cm, the mother normally feels heartburn but not too strong, and the mucus mixed with blood comes out.
- Active phase. This phase occurs when the opening is 3 cm long and extends up to 10 cm. The feeling of heartburn that the mother feels stronger and the frequency continues to increase up to 2-4 times every 10 minutes with a duration of 60-90 seconds and sometimes accompanied by rupture of the membranes.
This transition period is the most difficult period for mothers. Towards the end of the first time, the opening of the birth canal was almost perfect. The contractions that occur will be more frequent and stronger. Mothers may experience severe pain, most experienced mothers stated that these period are the most severe. The mother will feel heartburn and a huge pressure down such the feel to defecate.
In this phase, the mother can do:
- Prepare yourself physically and mentally well. Mother still has to eat, drink lots of fluids, and rest.
- Keep trying to take a walk, for example around the clinic or hospital, also try to take a warm bath to make it feel more comfortable.
- When a contraction comes, try to breathe well and regularly.
- Massage on the back or shoulder can also give a feeling of comfort and calm.
- Take enough fluids to avoid dehydration before labor
- Stages II
This phase begins when the cervix is completely open (10 cm) and ends when the baby born. At this stage, new mothers may be pushed to push the baby out. If you have previously been diligent in giving birth as preparation for normal childbirth, you can push it correctly and effectively. Besides, at this stage labor complications are usually found which encourage doctors to take Caesar’s actions. Contractions at this stage occur longer and stronger, usually within 3 minutes and continue to occur for 40-50 seconds. Mothers will feel strong pressure in the perineal area.
If the cervix has opened completely, but there is no urge to push, it will be better if you wait until there is a contraction or a spur that stimulates the urge to push. The mother’s sign is ready to be led to pushing, namely: pushing, pressure on the rectum, perineum protruding, vulva opening.
The perineal area is elastic if the condition does not allow the doctor or midwife to do the perineal cutting (episisotomy), this action aims to prevent lacerated forced perineal area due to pressure from the baby.
In this phase, you can do:
- Look for the most comfortable body position for the mother.
- Keep the atmosphere around mother calm,
- Breathe regularly, this is important to prepare energy.
- If the opening is not complete, do not push even if you feel the urge to push, just with a deep breath, to prevent swelling of the cervix.
- Pushing when there is a contraction or his
- Follow the direction of a doctor or medical person who handles correct straining techniques
After the baby is born an early breastfeeding initiation is carried out, the baby is placed on the mother’s breast to look for the mother’s nipple.
- Stages III
The stage is defined when the placenta starting to release after the baby is born and ends when the placenta comes out entirely. With uterine contractions, the placenta will be released.
If there are no obstacles, the placenta can be released spontaneously and this stage ends within 5-10 minutes. However, if it turns out to a condition called retention of the placenta occurs (all or part of the placenta is still left in the womb after more than 30 minutes), the doctor will issue it manually (withdrawn and interrogated) or through surgery. The placenta for a long period can make the mother have a risk of bleeding. After releasing the placenta, the doctor or midwife will check for lacerations or perineal tears and make sutures. After that, the cleaning of the delivery area will be carried out from the mother’s blood and body fluids.
What you can do in this phase is to keep calm while hugging the baby in the mother’s chest while doing the initiating early breastfeedings.
- Stage IV
After the baby and placenta are successfully removed, the mother will enter stage 4. In the first 2 hours after delivery, the mother is still at risk for several postpartum problems, such as bleeding in the birth canal tear or the appearance of blood clots. Therefore, the mother will be intensively monitored to ensure the absence of postpartum complications. This phase lasts for 2 hours after delivery. At this stage, the mother is still bleeding from the vagina for the next few days. This is not much coming from blood vessels in the uterine wall where placenta and remnants of the tissue released.
At this stage, the mother should consume nutritious food and drink because she may feel weak after undergoing tiring labor. If you feel out of blood from the birth canal, immediately report to your doctor or medical staff. Mothers will also be monitored for vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse, temperature, breathing and the amount of bleeding every 15 minutes in the first hour and every 30 minutes in the second hour.