Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy

Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy (1)
Anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy

Anatomy Changes and Physiological Adaptation in Trimester I, II, and III Pregnant Women

Notes On Physiological Changes In The Reproductive System Pcl

Reproduction system

  1. Vulva and Vagina
  2. Trimester I

In line with the influence of estrogen hormone, vulva and vagina have an increase in blood vessels so that it appears more red and bluish. The pregnancy hormone prepares the vagina for distention during labor. it is done by producing thick vaginal mucosa, tissue cells – vaginal cells that are rich in glycogen occur due to estrogen stimulation. The cells that live form a thick and white vaginal discharge called leukorrhea. During pregnancy, the pH of vaginal secretions becomes more acidic. Acidity changes from 4 to 6.5. Increased PH makes pregnant women more vulnerable to vaginal infections, especially fungi. Leukorrhea is a grayish mucoid discharge and sometimes smells bad.

  1. Trimester II

The increase of hormones estrogen and progesterone make hypervascularization enlarging blood vessels of the genitals. Scientifically,  oxygenation and nutrients in the genitalia increase. Increased vaginal vascularization and other pelvic vision cause striking sensitivity. Later, increased sensitivity can increase desire and sexual arousal, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy.

Increased congestion and relaxation of blood vessel walls and heavy uterus can cause vulvar edema and varicose veins. Also, edema and varicose veins usually improve during the postpartum period.

  1. Trimester III

The vaginal wall undergoes many changes which are preparations for experiencing stretching of labor with increased mucosal thickness, loosening of connective tissue, and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. These changes result in increasing the length of the vaginal wall.

  1. Cervical uterus
  2. Trimester I

In the first trimester of pregnancy, collagen becomes less strong wrapped. This normally occurs due to a decrease in the overall concentration of collagen. With smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue, collagen fibers unite with parallel directions to each other so that the cervix becomes soft on the wall of the not pregnant condition. However, it is still able to maintain pregnancy. As the pregnancy approaches the aterm, there is a further decrease in collagen concentration. The concentration decreases markedly from the relatively diluted state in the dispersing and remodeled state into the fiber. Dispersion is increased by increasing the ratio of decorin to collagen.

The concentration of water increases such as begins hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycan since the fibers are dispersed. Hyaluronic acid is secreted by fibroblasts and has a high affinity for water molecules. This further decrease in collagen concentration is clinically proven by softening the cervix.

  1. Trimester II

The consistency of the cervix becomes soft and the glands in the cervix will function more and produce more secretions.

  1. Trimester III

As the pregnancy approaches the aterm, there will be more decrease in collagen concentration. Its concentration decreases are marked by a relatively diluted state in a dispersing state. The process of repairing the cervix occurs after delivery so that the next pregnancy cycle will repeat itself.

  1. Uterus
  2. Trimester I

During the first week of pregnancy, the uterus is still like its original shape. It is resembling a pear. As the pregnancy progresses, the fundus and corpus area will be rounded and will be spherical at 12 weeks’ gestation. The length of the uterus will increase faster than its width so that it will form an oval. Isthmus uteri in the first-week forms hypertrophy like the uterine body which results in a longer and softer isthmus known as a hegar.

  1. Trimester II

In term pregnancy, the size of the uterus is 30 x 25 x 20 cm with a capacity of more than 4000 ccs. This allows for adequate accommodation of fetal growth. The uterus enlarges due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the uterine smooth muscle. While fibers of the collagen become hygroscopic and the endometrium becomes the decidua.

  1. Trimester III

At the end of pregnancy, the uterus will continue to enlarge in the pelvic cavity. Also, it progresses the uterus touches the abdominal wall, pushing the intestine to the side and up, continuing to grow until it touches the heart. When the uterine growth, it will rotate towards the right. This dextrorotation is caused by the presence of a rectosigmoid in the left pelvic region.

  1. Ovary
  2. Trimester I

At the beginning of the pregnancy, there is still the corpus luteum graviditatum, the corpus luteum graviditatum with a diameter of about 3 cm, then the corpus luteum shrinks after the placenta is formed. The corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone. The ovulation process during pregnancy will stop and new volcanic maturity will be delayed, only one corpus luteum can be found in the ovary. These volumes will function optimally for the initial 7 weeks of pregnancy.  After that, it will act as a relatively minimal amount of progesterone by the occurrence of pregnancy. The ovaries containing the corpus luteum graviditatum will continue to function until the perfect placenta is formed at 16 weeks.

  1. Trimester II

At 16 weeks’ gestation, the placenta begins to form and replaces the function of the corpus luteum graviditatum.

  1. Trimester III

In the third trimester, the corpus luteum is no longer functioning because it has been replaced by a formed placenta.

  1. Breast System
  2. Trimester I

The breasts will enlarge and become tense due to the hormones somatomammotropin, estrogen, and progesterone. Estrogen causes a hypertrophic duct system. While progesterone adds acini cells to the breast. Somatomammotropin affects the growth of acini cells and causes changes in cells so that casein is made. There are any changes in progesterone and somatomammotropin form fat around the alveoli.

Further, these cause the breasts to become large. The mammary papilla will enlarge, be more tense and darker, like the entire mammary areola called Hyperpigmentation. The fat that appears on the primary areola is called the tubercle fat of Montreal. The Grandula monte looks more prominent on the surface of the mammary areola.

The feeling of full increase in sensitivity, tingling, and feeling of heaviness in the breasts begins to emerge from the 6th week of gestation. This breast change is a sign that you may be pregnant. Breast sensitivity varies from mild tingling to sharp pain. Increased blood supply makes blood vessels under the skin dilate. Blood vessels that previously did not appear to be more visible often appear as blue braids beneath the surface of the skin.

  1. Trimester II

During the second trimester, the growth of the mammary gland makes breast size increase progressively. Luteal and placental hormone levels during pregnancy increase proliferation of dustus lactiferous and alveolar lobular tissue, so that palpation of the breast is felt by the spread of coarse nodules. also, it is increasing glandular tissue replacing connective tissue, consequently the tissue becomes softer and less frequent.

  1. Trimester III

In the third trimester, mammary gland growth makes breast size increase. At 32 weeks’ gestation, the breasts give off a slightly white liquid like very clear milk. From pregnancy 32 weeks until the baby is born, the liquid comes out becomes thicker, yellowish and contains lots of fat. This fluid is called Colostrum.

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Notes On Physiological Changes In The Reproductive System Pcl

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